Tag Archives: New York Times

Bill McKibben on Climate Change: Act Locally — And Globally

(This is the second of a two-part blog series on New York Times bestselling author-activist Bill McKibben’s recent visit to Nevada County, CA, sponsored by Ananda College of Living Wisdom and the Yuba Watershed Institute. In Part 2, I discuss McKibben’s suggestions on taking personal action that can slow the continued warming of the planet and its related storms, famines and disasters.)

On Sunday morning, I took an 11-mile Earth Day run down the North San Juan Ridge, the heart of California Gold Rush country and one of the world’s most unique regions. I ran atop serpentine rock that once lay miles beneath an ancient ocean floor, mantle rock from the earth’s deepest crust until it was vaulted above surface. I ran atop a fossil river bed the width of the Mississippi, surrounded by moonscape and Manzanita remnants of the most destructive part of the Gold Rush, hydraulic mining that ripped 500 feet of elevation off the Sierra Nevada foothills. As my run continued toward the Yuba River, I passed from the ponderosa pine forests of the low mountains to the oak and grasslands of the foothills, sighting deer and rabbit, enjoying the chatter of nearby Shady Creek, and reveling in a beautiful, mild sunny day in which Scottish broom, wildflowers and trees burst forth in fullest blossom.

As I clicked off the miles, a few thoughts occurred: What will happen to us, as a people, when it becomes too warm, polluted and dangerous to enjoy these Earth Day runs — or any outdoor activities? Why do we know less about our nearby natural surroundings than any generation in the history of mankind? How can we take the global steps to slow climate change when we won’t try to live without making a Sasquatch-sized carbon footprint?

Image

Bill McKibben (right) with Gary Snyder, who influenced much of his work for the environment and world.

When Bill McKibben came to Nevada City April 17 to discuss his latest New York Times bestseller, Eaarth, and the increasingly dire climate change conditions in which we find ourselves, he took dead aim on these and other questions. In fact, for all the anecdotes and scientific evidence he laid down —rising sea levels, acidifying oceans, increasingly destructive and frequent storms, diminishing ice caps, growing carbon dioxide levels, falling grain supplies and ever-multiplying harmful insect populations, etc. — McKibben’s greatest message came from the solutions he discussed, and how we tackle our future environment on this earth: globally. 

I will break down a few key solutions McKibben discussed in his 60-minute talks at Ananda College and Miner’s Foundry, where the sell-out audience included California Gov. Jerry Brown, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Gary Snyder and a 95-year-old Freedom Rider from the Civil Rights era.

• Acting Locally – and Globally: The first step is to reduce our personal carbon footprint and embrace more sustainable living. This includes such actions as buying produce from farmer’s markets rather than stores (where produce travels an average of 1,000 miles beforehand), growing our own food, doing business locally, using solar power and learning to repair our machines. It means getting to know our neighbors again, and relying less on cities. “My absolute favorite statistic is that last year, for the first time in 150 years, the USDA reported that the number of farms increased in America over the previous year,” McKibben said.

It also means acting globally. How do we do that in the ominous face of the mega-billion dollar fossil fuel industry, which is doing everything it takes to leech the last drop of oil from the earth and the last dollar from our pockets? How do we make substantive change when our government protects and subsidizes those fossil fuel interests, even though 70 percent of Americans are opposed to it (whatever happened to we, the people)?

“We’re trying to take away the subsidies these fossil fuel companies get from the government,” McKibben says. “Because of our government, taxpayers are paying these guys to continue destroying our environment.”

Image

Bill McKibben (far left), California Gov. Jerry Brown (right) and Gary Snyder (far right), among the crowd before McKibben's talk in Nevada City.

• 350.org and the Internet: One way to act globally is to embrace movements like 350.org. This is McKibben’s action group and website, started by he and seven students from Middlebury College in Vermont. It is a great way for each of us to act globally — starting now. On May 5, 350.org will hold a worldwide “connect-the-dots” day, focusing on climate change issues in every conceivable locality. Since 350.org has active branches in “every country but North Korea,” according to McKibben, you and I can get involved, connect with others, and spread the news worldwide. 350.org has served as the centerpoint for what CNN called the largest political demonstration in history, and been the major force in stopping the Keystone Pipeline. It goes to what McKibben feels is a major tool for halting climate change and global warming — communicating on the Internet.

• Stepping Out and Being Active: A Sunday School teacher, McKibben is a faith-centered man whose calmness in the face of this global maelstrom is remarkable. And inspiring. He sees interfaith groups of all denominations, regardless of their religious differences, arriving at ways to live that realistically acknowledge the changes in the Earth. To wit, he talked about the time that a Jordanian group made a human “3”, a Palestinian group made a “5”, and an Israeli group made a “0” on different banks of the Red Sea. They put their very deep divisions aside to recognize the one thing they have in common — living on a planet in distress.

That’s not all. One of McKibben’s most poignant comments came to the students of Ananda College, which is a campus-community practicing sustainable living in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The appeal to stay on campus and live self-sufficiently and sustainably is very strong, but, as McKibben said, “You can do that, but the climate change problems will still come to you. You need to get out and participate in the larger solution.”

Image

Bill McKibben, delivering the troubling news about climate change — and offering hard solutions.

• Food Sources: One of the more galling pieces of legislation was quietly passed last year by the U.S. Senate, making it a crime for you and I to produce and distribute food in all of the healthy ways that our grandparents would have called daily life. The purpose: to squelch the organic food industry in favor of agribusiness and genetically modified foods, all subsidized, for “the public safety.” Already, some raw milk dairies, bee farms and small organic farms in Northern California, and in other locations, have been shut down.

What?

Underneath this, it’s easy to see the sinister writing on the wall: The trucking and rail industries earn billions from transporting agribusiness crops from one end of the country to the other. Pharmaceutical and medical interests thrive on your short- and long-term unhealthiness — and mine. Every gallon of raw milk is a gallon a subsidized agribusiness dairy didn’t produce. Every piece of organic fruit is something for which Monsanto or Ortho did not provide seed, herbicide or insecticide — cutting into their profits. All of which does not make the director of the FDA, a former Monsanto executive, very happy.

When you hear McKibben address the issue, you can see the anger in his eyes. “I find it amazing that the Senate passed this so-called ‘food safety’ bill, and they are enforcing this law in the name of public safety, when, in the last 50 years, the chemical companies and powers that be have made the food supply into something that has turned us into fairly unhealthy people. They have not given a damn about our safety, and all of a sudden, they pass a bill that says you can’t grow and sell organic vegetables or sell your neighbor a gallon of raw milk?”

Now for the good news: Of all the government intrusions into our healthy choices, McKibben feels this might be the most solvable. “This is a very winnable situation,” he said. “Anyone who cares about eating healthy food needs to fight. Every farmer should have the right to sell produce or raw milk from his farm gate.”

The actions to take? Exactly what will make us healthier and reduce the carbon output into the atmosphere: Plant gardens. Share and swap food with neighbors. Grow organically. Buy from local farmers’ markets or locally grown produce. Use organic seeds.

There is much more to this ever-evolving situation. The bottom line with climate change and our forthcoming challenge, according to McKibben: it’s time to take another look at ethics as basic as the Bible in which they’re written — being stewards of the Earth, and loving our neighbors. “The Gospel injunction, ‘Love one’s neighbors,’ is very important to me,” he says. “It’s not what we’re doing now, which is drowning, starving and sickening our neighbors.”

Image

Advertisements

1 Comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Bill McKibben’s Eaarth Message: It’s Time To Act

(This is the first of a two-part series on New York Times bestselling author-activist Bill McKibben’s visit April 17 to Nevada County, CA and to Ananda College, where I teach. In Part 1, we look at McKibben’s message to spread the disturbing news that global warming is not only accelerating — but that its terrifying offspring, wholesale climate change, has been born.)

I was an environmental activist in the 1980s and early 1990s. I marched, fought for forest preservation from Reagan-era logging of redwoods and Douglas firs, participated in clean ocean campaigns, quit eating meat for environmental and health reasons, wrote many articles, and absorbed the vital works of Gary Snyder, Wendell Berry, Edward Abbey, Terry Tempest Williams and others. I also performed public relations work for EarthSave, the group founded by Baskin-Robbins ice cream heir John Robbins to confront the unhealthy, dangerous way food is mass produced — particularly in the meat and poultry industries. Want to know why Wendy’s, McDonald’s and others stopped cutting down Amazon rainforests to graze their hamburger cows? Or why free range meat, raw milk, organic produce and farmers’ markets – the ways of every generation up to those born post-FDR – started to regain a foothold in this country? Thank EarthSave, in part. We made a difference.

During this time, in 1989, a young East Coast writer with as much fire in his belly and anger over the nation’s fossil fuel and agribusiness approach as me — far more, as it turned out — wrote the first book on global warming. In The End of Nature, Bill McKibben warned of the consequences if we didn’t take major steps to slow our fossil fuel consumption and reduce our carbon footprint. That book launched McKibben on a lifelong mission with his pen to call attention to the slippery slope on which we were sliding, away from a perfectly balanced atmosphere and environment that has hosted civilization for the past 10,000 years, and toward an abyss we are now seeing through the tremendous storms, droughts and earthquakes of the past few years.

How have we done? Well, let me put it this way: While talking briefly on Tuesday with McKibben, a bestselling author and the world’s foremost environmental journalist, I brought up his latest book, Eaarth. The front half of this book reads like the movie script of The Day After Tomorrow — only it’s all true and scientifically verified. I said to him, “It’s really a shame you had to write Eaarth. I felt like I was reading the worst-case scenario of everything we were warning people against 25 years ago … and they just blew us off.”

Welcome to the way it is. Or, as McKibben says, “The Earth we live on now is not the same planet that has sustained civilization for the past 10,000 years.” On Tuesday night, at a sold-out gathering at Miners Foundry in Nevada City, Calif. that included his host and mentor, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet/essayist Gary Snyder, and California Gov. Jerry Brown, he put it another way while receiving a warm welcoming applause: “It’s a great pleasure to be here. Probably greater for me than it is for you after what I’m going to tell you.”

McKibben was brought to the area by Ananda College and the Yuba Watershed Institute, which co-sponsored the special evening. The main forces, who deserve great credit for organizing McKibben’s visit, are Nischala and Nakula Cryer of Ananda College, and Gary Snyder.

Earlier that day, before students and faculty at forested, bucolic Ananda College, McKibben also had a few things to say. I’m going to spend the rest of this blog sharing a few of his comments and insights, and then devote the next blog to his organization, 350.org, and steps we can take collectively moving forward.

Four things struck me about McKibben: He is a gentle, thoughtful, caring man with a wry sense of humor to go along with one of the most serious messages anyone has ever delivered on this planet. He is extremely dedicated to what he is doing; he has been home very little in the past five years, going from Bangladesh to China, Europe to all pockets of the U.S., to call us into action to save ourselves. He is humble and unpretentious, absent of arrogance. He is a Harvard graduate and Sunday school teacher who lives in a rural Vermont community, not the sort of person the media and a certain political element would associate with “environmentalist.” In fact, if ever there was a man more reluctant to step into the ring and take up the fight …

But fight he is, delivering the most important message in the world, in my opinion: because his message is the present and future of this world. Talk about the ultimate purpose for an award-winning journalist and writer to undertake!

Here is the message, boiled down to five basic premises:

1) Global warming. This is not, as Rick Santorum tells us from the depths of the sand, where his head is buried,  “made up by scientists.” Nor is it just getting underway. It is game on. The planet’s temperature has risen 1 degree, with more increase expected. With each degree of change, the world’s grain harvests reduce by 10%. In a world where the population is now 7 billion and expected to max out at 9 billion mid-century, that’s a scary proposition. In fact, as McKibben notes, the words “global warming” are becoming passé. It’s time to wrap our brains around a new term: “climate change.”

2) Climate change isn’t the clarion call of future doomsayers. We are changing, right now. “It’s happening much faster and much harder than we would have thought,” McKibben explained. “We have 40% less summer ice in the Arctic than we did when most of us were in school, when kids like me saw the Apollo 8 ‘Earthrise’ photo, and the oceans are 30% more acidic. Just in the last two years, we had extreme floods in Pakistan, where 20 million lost their homes, the tornado outbreaks in the Midwest and South that killed hundreds, and the drought in Texas, which killed half a billion trees. Plus, in my home area, Hurricane Irene dumped more rainfall in one day than any other day in the 250 years we’ve been keeping weather records in Vermont — and broke the all-time record not by a millimeter, but by 25 or 30 percent.

“This is the exact thing climatologists said would happen if the earth warmed up — and now it’s warmed up by 1 degree because of human consumption.”

Apocalyptic fires. Droughts that kill 500 million trees. Diseases like mosquito-borne dengue fever that kill thousands. Pine bark beetle infestations that wipe out tens of millions of trees in the Rockies. Floods that put 20% of entire countries underwater and break 250-year-old records. Earthquakes growing bigger and meaner (In early April, one year after the cataclysmic earthquake in Northern Japan, there were two 8-point quakes in Indonesia and a 7-point quake in Mexico — on the same day). Tornadoes not forming in isolated cells, but by the hundreds. Rain measured not in inches per season or month, but by the hour. Fifteen thousand high temperature records broken in U.S. cities and towns in March – as part of the warmest global winter in history.

Welcome to our new climate. And the really scary part? “It is very important to remember that this is just the beginning of climate change,” McKibben said.

3) When the carbon dioxide concentration in the global atmosphere reaches 350 parts per million, according to the world’s top climatologist, NASA’s Jim Hanson, we will permanently alter the atmosphere that created the life forms and civilizations into which we were born. Guess what? Will is now: the current concentration is 393 ppm, and rising two ppm per year. “We’ve taken hundreds of millions of years of biology buried under the earth — plankton, plant life, dinosaurs — and spewed it into the atmosphere, most especially in the past few decades,” McKibben said. “That’s what’s causing the problem. It’s effects show in a matter of days as extreme weather events, but also over a little bit slower pace, such as the steady rise of sea levels.”

The 350 number is what McKibben and seven Middlebury (VT) College students took in 2008 as the name for their organization to call attention to global climate change and act on it: 350.org. Citizens of every country except North Korea actively participate; in fact, in 2009, they led a total of 5,100 demonstrations in 181 countries, what CNN later described as greatest single political action ever taken in the planet’s history. Much more on this vital work in the next blog.

4) Hydrology. This is the scientific study of how water moves through the atmosphere. The math is simple: the warmer the air, the more water evaporates and populates the atmosphere. After seven days, it has to come down — and it’s coming down, hard. “We’ve loaded the dice for droughts and floods, and we’re seeing both in epic proportion,” McKibben said.

5) It’s Time to Act. If we don’t act on a global as well as individual and community level, bad will become catastrophic. It already is, in many countries. Deniability is not an option; the science is irrefutable. As McKibben puts it, “Some of our greatest support comes from third-world countries and places like Pakistan. They get it. They’ve been swept out of their homes.”

In every sinister story — and unfortunately, we’re all participants in this sinister story right now, entitled “Survivability and Sustainability” — there is a culprit or an antagonist. McKibben minces no words in identifying that antagonist, the one industry that has single-handedly altered the course of the planet — the fossil fuel industry. “While scientists have been warning politicians in one ear, the fossil fuel industry has been bellowing in the other. Their 20-year effort to make sure absolutely nothing changes has been very successful. It’s hard to go up against them; last year, Exxon made the largest profit in the history of money.”

In this part of the discussion, he brought out some good news — temporary though it may prove to be. McKibben and 350.org undertook massive action to stop the entire Keystone Pipeline from being built. They won their fight by two Senate votes last November — but only after enormous activism and education, a few nights in jail for civil disobedience, and forming a five-deep human ring around the mile-long perimeter of the White House — with people carrying signs that contained President Obama’s own words from the 2008 campaign, a reminder of what he said he would do to protect the environment and fight climate change.

At issue? The oil beneath the tar sands of Northern Alberta, Canada. When McKibben discusses it, a horizon of realization opens up that you won’t find in any of the countless TV commercials Exxon, BP and the others are airing. “The tar sands hold the second largest pool of carbon on earth. Only Saudi Arabia’s oil fields are bigger. If you take the damage the gold rush people did to the mountains in the Sierra Nevada foothills (in the late 19th century), and multiply it by maybe a billion, you will see the incredible amount of earth they’ve moved to get to maybe 3% of Alberta’s available oil. The amount of earth moved is more than the combination of what it took to build the Great Wall of China, the Suez Canal and the 10 largest dam projects on earth. If you don’t believe me, go to Google Maps. It looks like a giant scar on the face of the planet — and it costs more in orders of magnitude than the oil is worth.”

That led to one of McKibben’s most provocative comments — one that rolls right into my long-held disdain for this country’s ridiculous “liberal” vs. “conservative” labeling of divisive dialogue. If only people would look at the etymological roots of these words, see what they really mean, and examine their lives … well, that’s another subject. Which is why I loved the way McKibben used words like “extremist” and “radical,” a way that might surprise you:

“If you really think about it, the true radicals are those who work at oil companies and make the decisions to keep drilling and drilling some more. If you’re willing — and eager — to get up every day and change the chemical composition of the environment in a way that is extremely harmful to your fellow human beings, that’s never been done to a civilization, then you’re a radical.”

As for where I stand? This blog is my first action in awhile outside my own lifestyle, community interests, and poems and essays. I’m back in the ring. This planet and its people are far too important to waste — and that’s what is happening. Thank you, Bill McKibben, for reigniting the fire.

(NEXT: More from Bill McKibben’s talks, a closer look at 350.org and future community building, and what you and I can do, right now, to help slow down climate change).

1 Comment

Filed under Author Platform, Books, Education, Featured Websites, History, Journalism, literature, Reading, Social Media, Writing

Let’s Write TRUE Memoirs

Like millions of others, I was both astonished and horrified to hear of the lack of truthfulness in some aspects of Greg Mortenson’s bestselling memoir, Three Cups of Tea. I became even more disappointed as Mortenson tried to explain away the untruths in his narrative, using explanations that might satisfy an unknowing public — but not writers, especially those who honor the truth-alone-be-told credo of the memoir genre.

The impact of Mortenson’s loose interpretation of events in his life in the 1990s, followed by the way he exaggerated the number of schools his Central Asian Foundation set up in Afghanistan and Pakistan, has embarrassed the publishing industry yet again. However, it has also caused serious credibility and security concerns for all Americans who wish to do good works in that war-torn region. Mortenson’s influence extended all the way to the Pentagon, which saw him as a shining example of how to forge relationships and alliances with the local mountain tribes that are essential for U.S. success in the region. The ranking general, Gen. David Petraeus, was so impressed by Three Cups of Tea and Mortenson’s work that he recommended and bought copies of the book for his staff and others — and trusted Mortenson as a de facto advisor.

I’m sure Gen. Petraeus, like everyone else, is stepping back and taking another look right now.

The saddest part of Mortenson’s fabricated sections of Three Cups of Tea? They never needed to be written for this story to be great. He didn’t need to say he became lost and was rescued by villagers after attempting to summit K2. He didn’t need to say he was kidnapped by the Taliban (apparently, Taliban were among his tour guides). He didn’t need to exaggerate threefold the number of girls schools his institute started and ran. His work was amazing and his story inspirational without these glaring untruths. This man has done amazing work in a very, very difficult part of the world – and he and his staff have given educational hope to girls in a region where they would otherwise not have a chance to be educated.

Unfortunately, I believe Mortenson fell into a trap that befalls many memoirists today — dealing with an ever-shrinking publishing market that seeks out the most sensational books … or books by the famous and their massive platforms of popularity. Maybe he — or his editor — thought the lead-in story to the formation of the schools wasn’t sensational enough. What prompted him to write the rescue piece? Or the kidnapping section? Or exaggerate the school count — as 60 Minutes so sadly revealed last weekend?

We may never know. However, I know from my own experience that trying to sell memoirs can elicit a range of responses from editors that covers all 360 degrees of the spectrum. In a recent memoir project in which I was involved, I saw the following responses from big-house editors to the sample chapters submitted:

“The narrative isn’t strong enough.”

“The narrative doesn’t move fast enough.”

“The narrative is too strong.”

“This subject is too emotional for me to edit.”

What?

Book writers are under more pressure than ever to deliver books that jump off the shelves. Even the greatest writing doesn’t see print, in some cases. This is magnified for memoirists, who are (ostensibly) writing true stories of events that caused major changes in their lives, and relying on their story crafting skills and memories to bring the experience onto the page. The writing is, by definition, highly personal, highly charged and guaranteed to elicit emotional response in the reader. During the course of writing such books, many authors wring themselves out, relive events and sometimes suffer in ways their readers cannot fathom. Just think about, say, a memoir about a personal tragedy: Not only does the author experience and try to recover from the tragedy, but in writing the memoir, he or she must go back to that tragedy and relive it again. Sometimes, the pain is overwhelming.

Which leads to my point: memoirs are true stories. Just as we found out when James Frey’s A Million Little Pieces was exposed for its largely fictitious nature in 2006, readers are strongly affected by these types of books. And they suffer when they learn the work that may have changed their lives was not all true. As, I imagine, a lot of Three Cups of Tea fans are experiencing right now.

This, to me, is a transgression that falls on the shoulders of both the author and the publisher. Yes, the publisher’s claim that it must rely on the author’s reliability to tell the truth is correct. However, there are times when the large publisher’s zeal to make big profit and produce a bestseller must be tempered by at least a cursory fact-checking mission for books whose stories either touch the edge of believability, focus on emotional or controversial material, or involve lesser-known locales.

An easy way to do this? Require memoirists to send in copies of their research material when submitting the manuscript, just as they do topical non-fiction writers.

But I have a greater solution, and it comes down to the writers: If you’re writing a memoir, TELL THE TRUTH. DON’T LIE. DON’T FABRICATE. NO MATTER HOW TEMPTING. If you choose to fabricate or embellish certain events or circumstances to create an even more compelling story, then do what Jack Kerouac and his publishers did a half century ago with On The Road, The Dharma Bums and his other narrative works — call them autobiographical novels.

Hopefully, the Three Cups of Tea dust-up will do two things in the publishing industry: Create a greater insistence on truthful writing on the part of memoirists; and not affect the 95% of memoirists who relive their experiences, word by honest word, to put their stories on paper.

Leave a comment

Filed under Adult Literacy, Author Platform, Books, Editing, Featured Websites, literature, Memoir, Reading, travelogue, Writing